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Author:        CHUKWUMA, NONYE C.

Title:             Effects Of Devegetation On Agricultural Soil Quality At Nnewi North Local Government Area Of South Eastern Nigeria

Affiliation:    Environmental Technology Department
                    School of Environmental Sciences
                    Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:           June, 2016

This study evaluated the Impact of Devegetation on Soil environment of Nnewi North LGA in South East- Nigeria. It is caused by increasing demand for land
with its consequences on disruption of soil ecology, climate change, breakdown of nutrient cycle and increase in soil erosion, siltation of dams and reservoirs,
destruction of wildlife habitats, and loss of plant and genetic diversity. Soil samples for analysis were obtained in the study area from depth 0-15 cm, 15- 30
cm and 30-45 cm respectively. Conventional analytical methods were employed for the determination of selected physicochemical parameters: pH, NPK, organic
carbon,% sand, silt and clay; charged ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Al3+, Fe2+,Mn3+, and Zn2+. Heavy metals in the soil samples were analyzed using Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The pH values in all the sites had a mean concentration of 4.69, indicating acidity of the soil. Organic carbon concentration
ranged between 0.45-0.60%, indicating low microbiological activities in the soil and hence increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Mineral nitrogen had (0.06033 Mgkg-1) phosphorus (5.10–7.80 Mgkg-1) and potassium (0.05767 Mgkg-1) respectively. The soil may require some amendment
to boost crop production. In general, there was heavy concentration of the mean values of sand (75.67 %), silt (5.300 %) and clay (19.0233 %) as well as low
calcium and magnesium ion concentration in the soil, contributing to low fertility status at the area. The study recommended afforestation and integrated agriculture
as a tool for sustaining the environment.


Title:           Potentials Of Moringa oleifera Seeds And Aluminium Sulphate As Coagulants For Treatment Of Water Samples From Usuma River, Abuja

Affiliation:   Biotechnology Department
                   School of Biological Sciences
                   Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:           March, 2016

The potentials of Moringa oleifera seeds and Aluminium Sulphate as coagulants for the treatment of water samples from Usuma River Abuja was carried out. The physicochemical parameters investigated were the Turbidity (in NTU), Total Dissolved Solids (in mg/l), Conductivity (in μS), and Salinity (in ppm). For the water treatment with Alum, the standard municipal water treatment dosing of 360 mg/l was used. For the treatment with the natural coagulant, there was need to determine the optimum amount and conditions of application. The Box-Wilson Central Composite Rotatable
Factorial Design was applied using Design Expert software for modeling the impacts of Moringa oleiferaseed concentration (X1 in mg/l), mixing time (X2 in minutes), and mixing speed (X3 in rpm) on the percentage reduction of each of the studied parameter. Data from the experimental run for each parameter were fitted sequentially with a linear model, two factor interaction model, quadratic model, and cubic model. For each model fit, the model equation was obtained and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) carried out to assess the statistical significance of the model and the experimental
factors based on their p-values. Further statistical inferences were drawn  from the determination coefficients of the model (R2), “lack of fit” of the model and the model graphs where applicable. Results obtained showed that the effect of Moringa oleiferaseeds on the % turbidity reduction was best represented by the quadratic model. The maximum % Turbidity reduction that could be achieved was 74.79% and would be achieved with a coagulant concentration of 10mg/l, mixing time of 43 minutes and mixing speed of 80rpm. For the total dissolved solids, salinity and conductivity, none of the
models tested gave adequate representation of the data and hence it was not possible to predict optimum conditions for the effects of Moringa oleiferaseeds on these parameters. However from the experimental results, average reductions of 54.96%, 49.36%, and 56.19% were achieved for the total dissolved solids, conductivity and salinity respectively. For aerated water treated with 360 mg/l of Alum, a percentage decrease of 16.17%, 2.13%, 2.08% and 3.85% was achieved for turbidity, total dissolved solids, conductivity and salinity respectively. These results indicate that the natural
coagulant performed better than the artificial coagulant under the treatment conditions investigated in this study.


Title:            Care For Children With Sickle Cell Anemia; A Case Study Of Children In Imo  State Specialist Hospital Owerri

Affiliation:    Public Health Technology Department
                    School of Health Technology
                    Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:           January, 2016

Sickle Cell Anemia, an inherited devastating genetic disorder requires wholistic and multi-disciplinary approach in its care, with full involvement of affected families. Children are the future generation of any ethnic group and their  vulnerability nature calls for proper care. World Health Organization (WHO), declared sickle cell anemia public health priority according to Makani et al.,2010 as 2% of New Born Babies in Nigeria Alone are affected by sickle cell  anemia given a total of One Hundred and Fifty Thousand (150,000) affected children born every year in Nigeria. Sample size consists of children with sickle anemia in Imo State Specialist Hospital Owerri and the medical team attending to them there. Two different constructed questionnaires were used for the two different groups. A total of thirty five (35) patients and one Hundred and forty (140) medical personnel’s making a total of one hundred and seventy five (175) responses were used to explore existing care in imo State in the direction of regular care plan, improved care plan and non orthodox care plan. Both patients and professionals strongly agreed to the steps involved in the regular care plan except in the administration of Iron Drugs. While in the use of improved care plan which offers definitive care where strongly disagreed in Steps like bone  marrow transplant services and erythrocytopheresis up to (87.9%) and stem
cells transplant service strongly disagreed up to 100%. While hematological investigation and blood transfusion respectively disagreed by 44.3% and 18.6%, strongly agree by 55.7% and 77.9%. Lastly, non orthodox care which include the traditional, complimentary, spiritual others and none had responses thus 25.7%, 14.3%, 17.1%, 14.3 and 28.6.From the finding, the availability and
utilization of regular care plan was paramount, followed by non orthodox. The improved care plan which has curative impact is like a mirage in Imo state. It is  neither available nor affordable. Government and philanthropist should help in  providing health facilities that can provide improved care plan to unfortunate children with sickle cell anemia and at affordable cost to save lives.


Title:            Effect Of Federal Government Expenditure On Unemployment In Nigeria: An Empirical Study

Affiliation:   Financial Management Technology Department
                   School of Management Technology
                   Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:           June, 2016

This study on the Effect of Federal Government Expenditure on Unemployment in Nigeria for the period of 1981 to 2014 was carried out in order to find out how federal government expenditure affects unemployment so that measures can be taken to reduce unemployment that has been growing rapidly and has posed a big problem in the country. The independent variable is made of Federal Government Expenditure on Administration, economic service, social and community service, and transfer together with growth rate of Gross Domestic Product. The data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria bulletin, Bureau of statistics and World Bank bulletin. Using ordinary least square technique on e-views version 7, data were tested and empirically analyzed. From the result analyzed, we found out that federal government expenditure variables jointly affected unemployment in Nigeria but specifically, Federal Government Expenditure on economic services proved to reduce the unemployment more than the other variables. We also empirically deduced that a percentage increase in the federal government expenditure on economic service, administration, and growth rate of Gross Domestic Product decreased on unemployment while a percentage increase in federal government expenditure on social and community service, and transfer increased on unemployment. From the causality analysis, federal government expenditure on administration and unemployment granger cause (affect) each other. The result from the co- integration analysis showed that a long-run relationship existed among the variables. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that federal government should increase its expenditures on economic service, administration, growth rate of Gross Domestic Product and reduce its expenditures on social and community service, and transfer. Thus this will create employment which will enhance the welfare
of the citizens and also lead to increase in the nations‟ Gross Domestic Product.


Title:            Profit And Risk Management Strategies In Selected Agribusinesses In Imo State, Nigeria

Affiliation:  Agricultural Economics Department
                  School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology
                  Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:         April, 2016

This study was designed to analyze profit and risk management strategies in selected agribusinesses in Imo, Nigeria. The methods of proportionate sampling, followed by random sampling techniques were adopted in selecting the Local Government Areas and the sample size.
Data were collected with the use of questionnaire administered on 168 agribusiness entrepreneurs (87 food crops and 81 livestock entrepreneurs). The data collected were analysed using frequency distribution, percentages, mean, variance, the ordinary least square multiple regression model and z-statistic. Results obtained indicate that the mean age of the agribusiness entrepreneurs was 47 years for food crops and 45 years for livestock, education was 9 years for food crops and 10 years for livestock and agribusiness experience was 19 years for food crops and 12 years for livestock. The net income generated by food crops and livestock entrepreneurs was ₦152195 and ₦256955 per year respectively. Production, market, financial and human risks were found to be serious risks in the study area. The major risk management strategies identified were disease control (47.4% for food crops and 66.7% for livestock agribusinesses) followed by enterprise diversification (23% food crops and 18.5% livestock). The mean variance or risk level was 23345 for food crops and 53671 for livestock agribusinesses. Results of the regression analyses showed that variables such as age, sex, household size, education, experience and farm size were significant factors influencing profit of the food crops and livestock  agribusinesses.
Also variables such as age, marital status, household size, education, experience and income were significant factors influencing risk level of food crops and livestock agribusinesses. The hypothesis that there is no positive relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of agribusiness entrepreneurs and the profit of the selected agribusinesses tested was rejected with respect to variables with positive coefficients, and accepted with respect to variables with negative coefficients. The hypotheses that there is no significant difference between the level of profit of food crops and livestock agribusinesses, and there is no significant difference between the risk levels of food crops and livestock agribusinesses tested were significant at 5% level which led to rejection of null hypotheses. It was concluded that both food crops and livestock agribusinesses were profitable but risky ventures and that the agribusinesses require entrepreneurs proper understanding of the risk management strategies to adopt so as to improve profit. Therefore it was recommended that government should review the system of land ownership in the State, create awareness campaign group to sensitize the citizens on the need to engage in agribusiness, provides incentives and suitable market for the agricultural products and also encourage agribusiness entrepreneurs to be educated so as to enable them adopt proper risk management strategies so that agribusiness returns can be closer to expectations.