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Author: OGBOJI, THERESA ENUWA

Title:  ANALYSIS OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF HIGH QUALITY CASSAVA FLOUR VALUE CHAIN  IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA.

Affiliation: Agricultural Economics Department
School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: September, 2016

ABSTRACT
This study assessed the competitiveness of the High Quality Cassava Flour (HQCF)Value Chain in Imo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to; describe the socioeconomic characteristics of HQCF value chain players in the study area, examine the composition as well as functions of the stakeholders in the chain, identify and examine the effect of policies  on the HQCF in the study area, assess the factors which influenced access to credit by stakeholders in  the HQCF value chain , ascertain the level of awareness and perceived relevance of HQCF in the study area,  estimate the  cost and returns as well as profitability of the various stages of the HQCF value chain, evaluate the market share and hence competitiveness of HQCF in the study area, identify the marketing channels and the marketing strategies of HQCF in the study area and identify the constraints militating against the competitiveness of HQCF in the study area. The null hypotheses of no significant differences in profitability amongst the three key value chain players and no significant relationship between socioeconomic factors/ loan conditions and access to credit by HQCF value chain stakeholders were tested.. Data were collected from 61 cassava producers, 18 HQCF processors and 32 HQCF marketers selected   from Owerri agricultural zone with the aid of 3 sets of questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using percentages, means, cost and return analysis, profitability indices, logistic regression model, Policy Analysis Matrix, Market share index, and functional analysis of the value chain. The hypothesis was tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained showed that the majority of the actors studied were married, within the age bracket of 35-44years, attained formal education and had household size of 4-6 persons. Males dominated the cassava production stage while women engaged more in flour processing. The functional analysis showed that most of the stakeholders played more than a role along the chain implying that linkages are strong enough for cost minimization.  From the results of the logistic regression analysis,  collateral (X3),interest rate (X4), information about credit lending institutions (X5), membership of cooperative society(X6) and gender (X8) were significant at 1% probability level. The result showed that decrease in the interest rate is likely to increase access to credit among HQCF value chain stakeholders in the study area. Out of the 13 perception statements on the perceived relevance of the HQCF, 10 statements representing 76.9%  scored above the expected mean of 3.0 thus showing that value chain stakeholders in the study area are favourably disposed to the HQCF. The processing stage of the chain recorded the highest gross margin while the production stage gave the highest return on the amount invested. The bulk of the flour is presently sold to local consumers and advertisement a marketing strategy widely recognized and proven as the magic formula for market expansion is given little attention. The null hypothesis regarding differences in the profitability of the stakeholders was rejected following a calculated F ratio of 66.0 which was significantly higher than the critical value.Also, the logistic regression analysis for Hypothesis 2 showed that socio-economic characteristics of the stakeholders as well as the loan conditions significantly influenced their access to credit at 1% α-level. The study concluded that the HQCF value chain though relatively underdeveloped, is competitive and should be given the needed attention   Therefore, it was recommended that government should employ necessary measures to intensify  the implementation of the cassava flour inclusion policies and provide adequate incentives in order to ensure that the HQCF gains a significant share of the market ultimately geared at a price competitive HQCF industry.   
Keywords: competitiveness, value chain, HQCF, market share, policies 

Author: ENYIA, CHARLES ONYEMAECH

Title:  LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES AMONG FADAMA AND NON-FADAMA USERS  IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

Affiliation: Agricultural Economics Department
School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: September, 2016

ABSTRACT
The study examined the livelihood diversification strategies among Fadama and Non Fadama users in Imo State. Nigeria. Data used for the study were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 150 randomly selected Fadama users and 150 non-Fadama user making it a total of 300 questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, net farm income model, Gini coefficient model, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), multiple regression analysis, and logit model. Result of the analysis showed that farming activities is the major source of income generation among Fadama and non Fadama users in the study area, contributing 63.6% and 51.9% of Fadama and non Fadama users’ total household income. Non-farm activities contributed 36.4% of the Fadama users’ total household income. In the same vain, non-farm activities among non Fadama users contributed 48.1% of their total household income.  The analysis further showed that Fadama users mean household income was N560, 050 per annum while non Fadama users mean household income was found to be N467, 383 per annum. The Gini coefficient of 0.249 and 0.233 were estimated for Fadama and non-Fadama users in the study area. Livelihood diversification strategies among Fadama users were influenced by household size, age, educational level, extension visit and access to credit. Livelihood diversification strategies among Non Fadama users were influenced by household size, age, educational level and cooperative membership.  It was also noted that household size, gender, age, cooperative membership and farm size were among the socio economic factors that affected value addition among Fadama users, while household size, gender, age, educational level, cooperative membership and farm size affected value addition among non Fadama users. In addition, the result showed that there was a significant difference between Fadama and non Fadama users’ income. Also there was a significant difference between the livelihood diversification strategies of Fadama and non Fadama users in the study area.  Despite growing concern that farming alone may not provide sufficient income for sustainable livelihood, it still dominates livelihood activities and income generation among Fadama and non Fadama users. It is therefore recommended that Government policies aimed at sustainable livelihood and income generation should focus on both farm and non-farm sectors. Hence farming as a primary source of income may not guarantee sufficient livelihood for most Fadama and non-Fadama users’ households in Imo State. 
 

Author:          MOSES, ANIEFIOK JOE

Title:              Sanitary Conditions In Relation To The Prevalence Of Water-Borne Diseases And Their Socio-Economic Impacts In Selected States In Nigeria

Affiliation:     Public Health Department
                     School of  Health Technology
                     Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:           March, 2016

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to evaluate sanitary conditions in relation to the prevalence of waterborne diseases and their socio-economic impacts in Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive
design was adopted, and a multi-stage sampling procedure was used to collect data from 2,523 subjects aged 10-69 years in households in 48 communities, in 24 LGAs within 12 selected States
in Nigeria using questionnaire, walk-through inspection and observation checklist. The results showed that 1,633 (64.7%) of subject stated that they used covered waste bins to store their waste.
However, it was observed that the practice of indiscriminate dumping of waste was rampant and 2,135 (84.6%) of subjects said that they dumped their waste behind their backyard, near their
houses, in central dumpsite or in the drains, and that 50% of those handled waste for disposal were children. Over 1,438 (57%) of the subjects were not following proper hand washing procedures,
while 1,670 (66.2%) were not boiling water from doubtful sources before drinking. However, it was noted that despite this appalling situation, 2,195 (87) of the subject said they were well
informed on sanitation issues and their implication on health. There was no evidence of significant provision of sanitation services such as waste management, regular house-to-house inspection,
enforcement of sanitation regulations, etc., in the communities. It was further noticed that economic power played significant role in sanitation and there was significant relationship (P=0.05) between sanitary conditions and the prevalence of water-borne diseases in the selected states, which was impacting negatively on the socio-economic and health well-being of the population; making them even poorer because of frequent out-of-pocket expenditure on health.
Therefore, it is recommended that the Federal Government should establish a National Sanitation Coordinating Agency for policy formulation, coordination and intervention in sanitation matters.
The State Governments should provide sanitation infrastructure like sanitary landfill and waste treatment plants in strategic locations, and partner with LGA and NGOs to educate members of the public on sanitation matters. Community members should regard sanitation as a way of life, hence a daily affairs.

Author:      ASIEGBU, ONYINYECHI STELLA

 

Title:        Analysis of the Profitability of Maize Products in Nigeria

 

AffiliationAgricultural Economics Department

                    School of  Agriculture and Agricultural Technology

                    Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:          March, 2016

 

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes the profitability of maize products in Nigeria. It determines the socio-economic characteristics and processing activities of the processors; it identifies the various processed products from maize and then estimates costs and associated returns to maize processing. It also identifies constraints to maize processing; analyzed the factors that influence profit and investigate the specific effects of identified constraints on the processor’s growth potential of profit in Nigeria. As this work is part of Support to Agricultural Research and Development of Strategic Crops (SARD-SC) project, it guided the sampling technique. A multi-staged sampling technique was used to select 536 maize processors in the six innovation platform (IP) areas of the SARD-SC project area. A validated and structured questionnaire was used in collecting primary data.

Descriptive statistics, budgetary, multiple regression, Likert scale, and ordinal logit model were employed to analyze the data collected. Seventeen maize products which are mainly traditional food products were identified, these include agidi, dokunu, dunkwa, egbo, madidi/abari, maize flour, maize kokoro, maize kunu, maize bran, masa/huce/chibi, ogi/kwokwo, Pate, Pele, popcorn, roasted corn and tuwo-masara. The predominant products from the IPs are as follows: Kwara-Oyo IP (IP 1): ogi/kwokwo and tuwo-masara; Nasarawa-Kaduna IP (IP 2): maize flour, maize kunu, pankaso, ogi/kwokwo and tuwo masara; Katsina-Zamfara IP (IP 3): waina, tuwo-masara, maize flour and couscous/ dambo. The result showed that female dominated maize processing with 97.9 percent from IP 1; 99.5 percent from IP 2 and 96.3 percent from IP 3. In IP 1and IP3, 80.8 percent of the processors have a non-formal education while in IP 2, 64.9 percent have one form of education or the other. The highest age limits were within ≤30 and 40 years with a mean age of 31 to 40 years with a household size of 7 to 13 persons. The profitability analysis in IP 1 showed average monthly net return of N33,709 and N74,721, PI of 0.57 and 0.64; OR of 0.38 and 0.32 with a rate of return of N1.33 and N1.77 for tuwo-masara and huce/masa/baked cake in Kwara and Oyo State; In IP 2, profitability analysis showed average monthly net return of N67,793.97 and N24,988; PI of 0.44 and 0.22; OR of 0.54 and 0.77 with a rate of return on investment of 0.81k and 0.26k for maize flour in Nasarawa and Kaduna State; in IP 3, profitability analysis

showed average monthly net return of N36,816 andN35,117, PI of 0.35 and 0.92; OR of 0.62 and 0.68 with a rate of return on investment of 0.54 and N1.22 for maize flour and tuwo-masara in Katsina and Zamfara State.

The regression analysis revealed that in IP 1: gender, household size, cost of maize, depreciation cost, years of experience and working cost significantly influenced the profit level at one percent level while education attainment and cost of grinding were significant at five percent level; in IP 2: marital status, cost of maize grain, cost of grinding, depreciation cost, years of experience, location, initial capital at start-up, working cost and current capital significantly influenced the profit level by one percent; in IP 3: age, gender, marital status, cost of maize grain, depreciation cost and current capital significantly influenced the profit level at one percent level.

The major constraints faced by the maize processors in the IPs is as follows: IP 1; Inadequate capital, lack of credit, expensive credit, difficulty in acquiring credit, problem of water supply, epileptic electricity supply, high transportation cost of maize products drudgery/poor processing equipment, inadequate storage facilities, high storage cost; IP 2: lack of credit, inadequate capital, expensive credit, difficulty in acquiring credit, high electricity tariff, epileptic electricity supply, high transportation cost of maize products; IP 3: lack of credit, difficulty in acquiring credit, expensive credit, inadequate capital, epileptic electricity supply, inadequate storage cost, high storage cost, high interest rate and drudgery/poor access to equipment. The result reveal

empirically that some constraints were significant factors that determines processors profit growth potential in the IPs these include: IP 1: inadequate capital and drudgery/poor access to equipment; in IP 2: high transportation cost, drudgery/poor access to equipment, epileptic electricity supply and high electricity tariff; in IP 3: lack of credit, difficulty in acquiring credit, expensive credit, epileptic electricity supply and high interest rate. The study recommends that as tuwo-masara and egbo (IP 1); maize flour, tuwo masara and waina (IP 2); maize flour, tuwo masara and huce/masa/baked cake (IP 3) are more profitable than other products in the IPs;

investors are encouraged to invest and diversify their use of maize in these products. The Government, the private sector and development agencies such as SARD-SC should help create conditions (enabling environments) to all the sectors to continue to grow and also invest in agriculture. Enabling environment such as infrastructure, access to credit, introduction of modern method and adequate processing technology in the agricultural sector is required in order to encourage diversification and boost the economic performance of the agricultural sector of the economy and hence make the processing of maize more attractive and lucrative. This

will awaken more women, youths, and even men to go into commercial processing of maize. The government should create education awareness on the importance of education through radio and television using processors local language and hence primary education should be made compulsory. This will equip them and make their business more profitable.

Author:        MOHAMMED BAUSHE MOHAMMED

Title:            Bio-Control Of Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease Of Groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) Using Extracts Of Moringa oleifera LAM. AND Jatropha curcas L.

Affiliation:   Crop Science and Technology Department
                   School of  Agriculture and Agricultural Technology
                   Federal University of Technology, Owerri  Imo State

Date:           December, 2012

ABSTRACT
The study was conducted in the School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (SAAT) research farm. The Experiment was laid out in a RCBD form. Extracts from roots and seeds of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas were tested at 10% concentration and sprayed after 2,3 and 4 weeks in three different growing periods of groundnut; 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Some plant extrated were mixed with 3ml of an emulsifier made from castor oil known as RIMULGAN and then separately added to each of the 150ml of the four different plant extracts. Neem oil at 0.6ml, hexaconazole material (6% EC) at 0.3ml and mancozeb (80% WP) at 0.4g/plot were equally used. The test materials significantly reduced the disease severity at 2, 4 and 6 Weeks spray in two, three and four weeks After Sowing (WAS) plots when compared with untreated plots. When the plots were treated after 2 weeks, all the plots showed no severity of the disease (0.00), except plots sprayed with Hexaconazole 6% E.C (0.333), Neem oil (0.667) and RIMULGAN alone which recorded highest severity of the disease (1.00). In three weeks after sowing plots, all the treated groundnuts showed no severity of the disease (0.00), except Hexaconazole 6% E.C and Mancozeb 80% WP (0.333) and untreated plot (0.667), while plot treated with RIMULGAN alone recorded the highest severity of the disease (1.00). In four weeks after sowing plots, the untreated plot recorded highest severity of the disease (1.333), while the groundnuts in other treated plots recorded the same severity of the disease (1.00). At 4WAS, plot treated with RIMULGAN + M. oleifera seed extract, RIMULGAN + M. oleifera root extract, RIMULGAN + J. curcas seed extract, RIMULGAN + J. curcas root extract and Neem oil recorded lowest incidence of the disease (0.00%) after two weeks spray, followed by Mancozeb 80% WP (0.333%), while untreated plot recorded the highest (1.667%). In three weeks after sowing, the test materials showed no significant differences on severity of Cercospora disease of groundnut after 4 and 6 weeks spray when compared with untreated plot. In four weeks after sowing, untreated plots (control) recorded highest severity of the disease (2.333) followed by RIMULGAN (2.00). While plots treated with Neem oil and Mancozeb 80% WP recorded
lowest (0.333). After 6 weeks spray, plot treated with RIMULGAN + J. curcas root extract recorded lowest incidence of the disease (0.00%) in two weeks after sowing, followed by RIMULGAN + J. curcas seed extract and Neem oil (0.333%), and while plot treated with RIMULGAN and untreated plot recorded highest (2.00%). In four weeks spray, plots treated with RIMULGAN and control recorded the highest severity of the disease (2.333), followed by M. oleifera seed extract (2.00) while groundnut in plots sprayed with Neem oil and Mancozeb 80% WP recorded the least (0.333). Treatment materials showed significant differences on Cercospora disease incidence at 2, 4 and 6WAS. It also showed significant differences on overall seed yield and on incidence and severity of non Cercospora diseases (late leaf spot, rust, Alternaria leaf disease and anthracnose diseases) at 2 and 6 weeks after
spray, in two, three and four weeks after sowing when compared with the untreated plot.
The summary of this study shows that the plant extracts were able to control both the Cercospora and other folia diseases of groundnut. However, the RIMULGAN + seed extracts (Jatropha and Moringa) were more effective and comparable with Neem oil and synthetic fungicides (Hexaconazole 6% E.C and Mancozob 80% WP) than the root extracts and spray test plant after 2 WAS gave a better result than 3 and 4 WAS.