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Title: Synthesis and Characterization of Alkyd Resins from Selected Indigenous Seeds

Affiliation: Food Science Technology Department
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: June, 2016

Alkyd resins were synthesized from the oils of flamboyant seed (FBO), sandbox seed (SBO), frywood seed (FWO) and vegetable sponge seed (VSO), and were compared with a commercial alkyd resin. The physico-chemical properties of both the oils and the consequent alkyd resin were studied. FourierTransform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups present in the alkyd resins. MATLAB was used to generate model equations for the extent of reaction for the synthesis of the alkyd resins. The oils extracted from the plants seedsexhibited different colours and were liquids at room temperature. The highest value of the oil yield (39.20%w/w) was seen in the sandbox seed while the vegetable sponge seed gave the lowest oil yield (2.20%w/w). The oil from the frywood seed was more viscous (27.06 m2/S) at 30oC while flamboyant seed oil was less viscous (21.74m2/S). The synthesized alkyd resins (FBOAR, SBOAR, FWOAR and VSOAR) were all dark-brown in colour while that of the commercially available alkyd resin (CPAR) was colourless.  The specific gravity (52.80, 50.28, 47.70, 47.58 and 47.40 g/cm, at 30ºC) and viscosity (34.17, 33.97, 36.50, 35.46 and 32.34 m2/S, at 30 ºC) of FBOAR, SBOAR, FWOAR, VSOAR and CPAR were respectively determined and no significant different was observed in values of the test alkyd resins and the commercially prepared type. However, saponification values of the test alkyd resins (302.94, 403.92, 361.85 and 426.38mgKOH/g) were higher than the commercially prepared alkyd resin (263.97mgKOH/g) and iodine value was least in FWOAR (32.33gI2/100g) compared to FBOAR (56.98 gI2/100g), SBOAR (72.97 gI2/100g), VSOAR (48.84 gI2/100g) and CPAR (48.22gI2/100g). The acid value in SBOAR was highest (7.15mgKOH/g), followed by FWOAR (7.01mgKOH/g), FBOAR (6.45mgKOH/g), CPAR (6.31mgKOH/g), and VSOAR (6.17mgKOH/g). The model equation developed showed compliance with the experimental data. The IR spectra of the test alkyd resins and the commercially prepared alkyd resin show the broad band shoulder around 3859.69cm-1 and 3498.02 cm-1 were due to the OH stretch hydroxyl of the unsaturated fatty acid. The peak value within the range of 2930.93 cm-12933.83cm-1 observed in all the alkyd resins corresponds to SCN. The peak height observed around 1727.31cm-1 in all the alkyd resins except VSOAR, was due to CO stretch of unsaturated cyclic ester of monoglyceride while other peaks observed in FWOAR and CPAR suggest the presence of vinylidene compounds of unsaturated fatty acid of diglyceride and triglyceride. From the performance tests, the drying trend in terms of fast-to-dry were in the order: CPAR > VSOAR > SBOAR > FBOAR > FWOAR. All the alkyd film samples except that of FWOAR were observed to be highly resistant to water; CPAR, VSOAR and SBOAR were highly resistant to acidic medium. All alkyd film samples were poorly resistant to alkaline medium. Results obtained from this study suggest that the oils and oil modified alkyd resins synthesized from the test plants’ seeds exhibited good performance characteristics even when compared with the commercially produced resin and there are similar functional groups in the compounds observed in the absorbance of IR spectra.