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Author: UZOR, CAROLYN CHINOMSO

Title: Physico-Mechanical Properties of Compatibilized natural Rubber/Recycled Poly (Ethylenetereph Thalate)/Dikanut Shell Powder Bio-Composites

Affiliation: Food Science Technology Department
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: June, 2016

ABSTRACT
Blends of natural rubber(NR) and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) filled with dikanut shell powder (DNS), were prepared by reactive compatibilization in a two roll mill, using maleic anhydride grafted polyisoprene (MAPI) and hexamethylene diamine (HMDA) as dual compatibilizer. Dikanut shell powder was prepared at a particle size of 150µm. A constant blend composition of NR/PET: 70/30 was used with varying filler and compatibilizer ratios of DNS/MAPI/HMDA: 0/0/0, 10/0/0, 15/0/0, 20/0/0, 0/2/0.5, 10/2/0.5, 15/2/0.5, 20/2/0.5, 10/2/0, 10/2/0.3, 10/2/0.5, 10/2/0.7. The effects of filler loading and compatibilizer content on physico-mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, percentage elongation and compression set of NR/PET/DNS composite were investigated.The results show that, tensile strength, modulus, and compression set values increased with increasing filler loading for both compatibilized and uncompatibilized composites.These properties also showed increasing trend with increasing compatibilizer content. However, for compression set, a decreasing trend was observed with increasing compatibilizer content.Percentage elongation showed a decreasing trend with increasing filler loading for both compatibilized and uncompatibilized composites. It also exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing compatibilizer content. 

Author: CHIKE-ONYEGBULA, CATHERINE OLUCHI

Title: Effects of Starch Blends and Processing Technique on some Properties of Biodegradable Polymer Drilling Muds

Affiliation: Food Science Technology Department
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: July, 2016

ABSTRACT
This research was carried out on “Effects of Starch blends and Processing Technique on some Properties of Biodegradable Polymer Drilling Muds”. Several biodegradable polymer drilling muds were prepared using starches from local corns and millet pregelatinized and blended by extrusion technique in the absence of any solvents or chemicals. The filtration and rheological properties of the new muds and three already existing muds were studied at 25oC-450oC temperature range and at 0.01-0.05g/ml concentration of each starch using filter loss method and viscometric method respectively. The biodegradation properties of the muds were studied with their respective starches using soil burial test method and plant growth method. The experimental results were also modelled using MATLAB software method of modelling. Experimental results showed that the new polymer drilling muds have excellent filtration control behaviours and thermal stability at all the temperatures. The three already existing muds showed thermal degradation at 250oC, 350oC and 450oC temperatures. The values of flow index were found to be less than 1.0 showing pseudoplastic flow behaviour of the muds. Consistency index, Shear stress and yield stress increased with increase in concentration. Viscosity decreased with increasing shear rate showing shear thinning behaviour of the muds. The highest percent weight loss of 65.70% and lowest percent weight loss of 10.34% were obtained with one of the new starch blends and one of the already existing starches respectively for biodegradability. The polymer drilling muds obeyed Henri Darcy and API models for filtration as well as power law and Herschel Bulkely models for fluid rheology. The results from Matlab model showed that the values of coefficient of regression, (R2) and the Sum of Squared Errors, (SSE) were respectively close to “1” and “0”signifying good fit for all the new muds. The behaviours of the muds showed that there is proximity between the Matlab‟s modelled results and the experimental results based on the already existing models.Therefore, the polymer muds containing the new starch blends are purer, more suitable and more environmentally friendly than the already existing muds. The new muds are therefore recommended to be used for drilling operations in all areas including high temperature and environmentallysensitive areas.

Author: ODIDI, OKPO DONALD

Title: Flammability Properties of Compatibililized Dikanut Shell Powder Filled Natural Rubber/Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Composites

Affiliation: Food Science Technology Department
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: December, 2015

ABSTRACT
The major objective of the study is to evaluate the flame retardant properties of NR/PVC/DNS powder filled with KBr, Mg(Cl)2 and Mg(Oh)2as flame retardant bio-composites obtained by using MAPI (maleic anhydride-gpolyisosprene) and TETA (triethylene tetramine).Blends of natural rubber (NR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filled with dikanut shell powder (DNS) and carbon black (CB) were prepared by reactive compatibilization in a two-roll mill. A combination of maleic anhydride-g-polyisosprene (MAPI) and triethylene tetramine (TETA) was used as compatibilizers. Halogenated flame retardants (Mg(Cl)2 and KBr) and metal oxide flame retardant, Mg(OH)2 were used as flame retardants. Blend compositions of NR/PVC100/30 were filled with varying filler ratios of CB/DNS30/0, 30/5, 15/10, 10/15, 5/20, 0/25, 0/30 pphr. Blends were filled with flame retardants in the ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 pphr. The effects of filler loading, compatibilizer loading, mesh size (particle size) and flame retardants on vulcanizate properties of filled blends such as ignition time, auto-combusting time and flame propagation rate were investigated. The results show that dikanut shell powder significantly improved the flammability properties of the blends. The flame propagation rate was greatly reduced by increasing both DNS and CB filler loading. It was observed that the composites became more resistant to ignition and propagation of flame with increasing filler content. The rate of burning of the composites also decreased with reducing filler particle size. The rate of flame propagation also showed a decrease with increasing flame retardant levels. Increases in the compatibilizer levels made the composites more resistant to burning and decomposition, thereby increasing the flame resistance. The NR/PVC/CB composite blends showed superior flame resistance characteristic than the NR/PVC/DNS composite blends. Flame retardancy of the composites showed improvements of about 200% and above in some cases. The NR/PVC/DNS can be used for high volume polymer products such as shoe soles, foot mats and car exhaust hangers at low DNS filler loading of 10pphr.

Author: CORDELIA ONEGBEDAN

Title: Physico-Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber filled with Carbonized Cherry and Rubber Seed Shells

Affiliation: Food Science Technology Department
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: April, 2016

ABSTRACT
Physico-mechanical properties natural rubber filled with carbonized cherry and rubber seed shell as fillers were studied. Samples of cherry and rubber seed shells were carbonized at varying temperatures (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700oC for three hours each and sieved through a 100m mesh. The physical properties of fillers such as the swelling behavior, loss on ignition, iodine absorption number, moisture content, the pH and the bulk density results evaluated show that pH, iodine adsorption number and loss on ignition increase with carbonization temperature, moisture content decreases while bulk density varies with increase in carbonization temperature. The percentage swelling behaviour results show that carbonized cherry seed shell filled vulcanizates are more resistant to solvents used than carbonized rubber seed shell filled vulcanizates, The mechanical properties of the vulcanizate which include enlongation at break, compression set and flex fatigue decreases with increase in filler carbonization temperature. some mechanical properties Such as tensile strength, mochulus, Hardness and abrasion resistance increase with increase in filler carbonization temperature.  The mesh size of 100m were used as to obtain a fine particles size. Any mesh size above 100m will be lesser. Thus for high quality vulcanizates carbonization should be done at 600oC.

Author: EZUGWU, MAUREEN UZOAMAKA

Title: Synthesis and Characterization of Alkyd Resins from Selected Indigenous Seeds

Affiliation: Food Science Technology Department
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State

Date: June, 2016

ABSTRACT
Alkyd resins were synthesized from the oils of flamboyant seed (FBO), sandbox seed (SBO), frywood seed (FWO) and vegetable sponge seed (VSO), and were compared with a commercial alkyd resin. The physico-chemical properties of both the oils and the consequent alkyd resin were studied. FourierTransform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups present in the alkyd resins. MATLAB was used to generate model equations for the extent of reaction for the synthesis of the alkyd resins. The oils extracted from the plants seedsexhibited different colours and were liquids at room temperature. The highest value of the oil yield (39.20%w/w) was seen in the sandbox seed while the vegetable sponge seed gave the lowest oil yield (2.20%w/w). The oil from the frywood seed was more viscous (27.06 m2/S) at 30oC while flamboyant seed oil was less viscous (21.74m2/S). The synthesized alkyd resins (FBOAR, SBOAR, FWOAR and VSOAR) were all dark-brown in colour while that of the commercially available alkyd resin (CPAR) was colourless.  The specific gravity (52.80, 50.28, 47.70, 47.58 and 47.40 g/cm, at 30ºC) and viscosity (34.17, 33.97, 36.50, 35.46 and 32.34 m2/S, at 30 ºC) of FBOAR, SBOAR, FWOAR, VSOAR and CPAR were respectively determined and no significant different was observed in values of the test alkyd resins and the commercially prepared type. However, saponification values of the test alkyd resins (302.94, 403.92, 361.85 and 426.38mgKOH/g) were higher than the commercially prepared alkyd resin (263.97mgKOH/g) and iodine value was least in FWOAR (32.33gI2/100g) compared to FBOAR (56.98 gI2/100g), SBOAR (72.97 gI2/100g), VSOAR (48.84 gI2/100g) and CPAR (48.22gI2/100g). The acid value in SBOAR was highest (7.15mgKOH/g), followed by FWOAR (7.01mgKOH/g), FBOAR (6.45mgKOH/g), CPAR (6.31mgKOH/g), and VSOAR (6.17mgKOH/g). The model equation developed showed compliance with the experimental data. The IR spectra of the test alkyd resins and the commercially prepared alkyd resin show the broad band shoulder around 3859.69cm-1 and 3498.02 cm-1 were due to the OH stretch hydroxyl of the unsaturated fatty acid. The peak value within the range of 2930.93 cm-12933.83cm-1 observed in all the alkyd resins corresponds to SCN. The peak height observed around 1727.31cm-1 in all the alkyd resins except VSOAR, was due to CO stretch of unsaturated cyclic ester of monoglyceride while other peaks observed in FWOAR and CPAR suggest the presence of vinylidene compounds of unsaturated fatty acid of diglyceride and triglyceride. From the performance tests, the drying trend in terms of fast-to-dry were in the order: CPAR > VSOAR > SBOAR > FBOAR > FWOAR. All the alkyd film samples except that of FWOAR were observed to be highly resistant to water; CPAR, VSOAR and SBOAR were highly resistant to acidic medium. All alkyd film samples were poorly resistant to alkaline medium. Results obtained from this study suggest that the oils and oil modified alkyd resins synthesized from the test plants’ seeds exhibited good performance characteristics even when compared with the commercially produced resin and there are similar functional groups in the compounds observed in the absorbance of IR spectra.